In and after the Edo period it was called kando (disowning).
SAKAIBE no Kusuri fought on the side of Prince Otomo (Emperor Kobun) in Jinshin War
There are various opinions about the enforcement of the Ritsuryo system, with some theories claiming that the stipulations of the Ritsuryo system were strictly enforced, and others that common law was still used in ruling the country.
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